The evolution of printed circuit boards: a history

Before printed circuit boards (PCBs) existed, point-to-point construction was used by electric engineers. In point-to-point construction, wires are manually connected from one point to another (hence the name). Although people were able to get by with this type of work, point-to-point construction is costly than a computer-aided design developed by a computer software program and is more prone to human error. Short-circuits and wire failures were also a common problem with this type of set-up.

It was in 1963 when Paul Elsier, an Austrian-born engineer, first invented the PCBs. During this time, Mr. Elsier developed it as a part of a radio. The radio he created was one of the first electronic devices to have a printed circuit board inside it. There were also developments in the processes used in PCBs as early as 1904s when Thomas Edison experimented with plating conductors into linen paper using chemical methods. The United States of America also used them to build proximity fuses back in 1943 for World War II. After the war was finished, commercial use of the PCBs began.

Printed circuit boardsThe invention of the printed circuit board was a big leap for the electronics and technology industries as it allowed electronic devices to be reduced to a more comfortable and practical size. PCBs also decreased the human error that can occur during point-to-point construction. Commercially available boards began to increase in size. With smartphones and other portable devices flourishing, it is not surprising that the boards have become smaller to match mobile and miniaturized devices. Fortunately, the size of the PCBs is inversely related to its features and capabilities. Now, most PCBs are equipped with high-performance processors, HD video cards, etc.

Traditionally, PCBs are created as flat, rectangular boards. Nowadays, there are flexible printed circuit boards. High frequency circuit boards are typically produced using rigid boards. Using flexible circuit boards will entail analyzing other additional factors to the materials like the bending properties of the materials and the amount of strain each material and component can take.

Materials used for PCBs have also changed with time. Early PCBs utilized paper saturated with phenolic resin which is commonly known as flame-retardant #2 (FR-2). Flame retardants are materials that are used in the market to prevent the spread of fire or be a safety measure for flammable materials. In the market today, flame-retardant #4 (FR-4) is the most common material used in creation of PCBs. FR-4 refers to printed circuit boards which are composed of fiberglass cloth epoxy laminate sheets. FR-4 became the standard in creating boards because of the rise in powerful processors which in turn needs a more durable PCB.

Old PCBs also made use of lead but in 2006, the European Union (EU) banned the use of lead with the implementation of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS). Though it was executed and took effect on July 1, 2006, the European Union adopted RoHS back in February 2003. RoHS is for the reduction of toxic waste and address the high amount of waste that is produced by consumer electronics. Since lead is extensively used for soldering, the ban had a significant effect on the production of PCBs. For this, manufacturers sought new alloys to act as the substitute of lead.

It will not be surprising if other developments in printed circuit boards will come in the next few years or even months. With the fast-pace rate of development in technology, it will not take long for manufacturers to develop and innovate more cost-efficient ways of producing printed circuit boards as well as incorporating high-standard materials in the creation of boards.

The Elements of Content Marketing SEO Companies Implement From Start To Finish

When it comes to working with content, people seem to think that they have it all figured out. It’s not something that is easy to work with for most, but it’s definitely something that needs to be worked on. You’ll find that this is evident when you’re publishing any type of website. You could set up a site that is dedicated to one topic, or another, but at the end of the day, the topic doesn’t matter as much as the way you frame the updates. SEO companies know this all too well and they create updates that are within the same elemental design each and every time. It’s somewhat formulaic, but it’s the sum of the parts that usurps the right amount of traffic from search engines. Of course, it’s important to realize that this is not a one sided solution. You cannot just expect one thing to give you the most traffic overall, because it’s not going to happen that way. You’re going to need more than just content to get the top billing in search engine results. Exploring the elements of what marketing in the world of content means is one way to ensure that you are able to chase the right pieces and gain leverage overall.

Seeking Context and Relevancy

SEOIt is a mistake to just assume that SEO companies have a stockpile of content that they work with. It is built, but it is not inherent. Companies take time to build this after they look for relevant information about the industry that you’re in. That means that they are going to have to look at the bigger picture of your niche. Without knowing what consumers want, and without due diligence, the marketing collateral that a company can build is not going to suffice at all. This is something that is evidence in the framework of a lot of different sites that you can build. No matter what the goal is, you will need relevancy moving forward, or else it will not suffice.

Answering Questions As Content

One of the best ways that you can ensure that you’re content marketing is going well, and something that professionals do on a regular basis is answer questions. Search engines today are answering machines. When you look for anything, no matter what keywords you use, you are going to be looking for answers to specific questions. For instance, when someone types in skate shoes, they are looking at buying a pair of shoes. A person doesn’t have to explicitly type in the reason for the keywords, they just look for the keywords. The end user is looking for information, and that’s where relevancy trumps anything else that you can do. It’s why content matters, as it answers the right questions.

Keywords Short and Long

Keyword selection is important on a lot of different levels. It’s something that can help create market share for any major company, and something that many people take for granted. You cannot get anywhere today if you are not working within the parameters of keyword placement and use. In the past, you could stuff these into a site and get a lot of attention. Today, you are going to need to do more than that, you’ll need to look at both short word terms and long tail words. The more you research this, the more you will see that it is the backbone of SEO as a whole. Creating content with this in mind is not so much about repetition, as it is relevancy in hopes of answering the right questions with the content that gets built as a result.

Guest Blogging Routine

From time to time, the content marketing SEO companies do will move away from just your website, into the realms of other people’s websites. That is done through what is known as guest blogging. You’ll find a blog that is relevant to your niche and a piece will be creating with the intent of publishing it on another blog. That will give your page a swift backlink, and a new audience to talk to. The end result will be traffic, authority, and relevance overall. It’s something that most people chase, but few people actually see working well for them. It takes time to build a network of relevant websites to market within and something that a professional can help create, and work within. It’s not an easy thing to move through, and professionals know that.

Diverse Structure

One of the last pieces of content that companies work within is simple, they work with diversity in their approach. Instead of thinking of content as one sided, imagine it as a 20 sided dice roll. You will need to update a page with one of 20 different elements of design. Whether that means posting all text, or all images, or perhaps a mix of both, there comes a great deal of opportunity when you are balancing the right pieces of information within the reaches of content marketing and design. Publishing just one type of post, for instance, you are not going to end up making much of an impact. At the end of the day, if you don’t know how to work within all the elements mentioned here, it’s perhaps time to hire a pro.

12 Eye-opening Reasons Why a Hospital Uses Digital Signage

It’s impossible to inform all patients, healthcare professionals, and visitors in a large hospital. How does digital signage work in this scenario? Read on to find out!

1. Allows Pharmacists to Give Medications Immediately

Pharmacists receive digital information about a patient’s prescribed medication. They can make medication regimens that are suitable to a particular patient. The patient does not acquire any adverse effect from the medications. This is because the medications have been adjusted by the pharmacists.

2. Quickens the Patient’s Check-in Process

digital signageA patient does not have to do paperwork to receive medical treatment. He or she only needs to use an interactive signage to type his or her name and other important information. The signage allows the patient to review his or her data before printing out an identification bracelet.

3. Reduces Patient Anxiety

Incoming patients can lessen their anxiety by watch a video that’s displayed on the signage. The video shows details about the patient’s stay in a hospital. Incoming patients will have an idea about what they may go through while staying in a hospital.

4. Reduces Perceived Waiting Time

Patients can watch promotions and news on a digital signage while waiting for an appointment with a doctor. They can also watch health information and television series.

5. Directs People to Their Loved Ones in a Hospital

A digital signage requires certain information. The information may be the patient’s name, ID number, or personal information. The signage will not direct visitors to a patient if they input the wrong information. The visitors don’t need to bother hospital staff for directions.

6. Validates Healthcare Workers Who are Involved in a Patient’s Care

Healthcare workers can determine the other workers who care for the patient. The bar code on the patient’s identification bracelet is scanned by the digital signage. Unauthorized healthcare professionals don’t appear on the signage when the bar code is scanned.

7. Allows Hospital Staff to Save Money

Paper and ink are not required to disseminate information throughout the hospital. The staff will throw the paper away if the information is no longer needed. The staffs only need to update the information without throwing away the signage. Paperwork that’s relevant to the patients’ care does not need to be regularly updated by the staff.

8. Validates Handwritten Information

A doctor’s prescriptions may be difficult to read for the patients and other healthcare workers. The prescriptions can be read on the signage because it uses legible fonts.

9. Instant Delivery of Patient Information

Hospital staff can quickly access the patient’s information. They do this by scanning the bar code on the patient’s identification bracelet. The information may contain the patient’s scheduled surgery, medications, and allergies.

10. Provides Patient Education

Incoming patients may watch a video about certain medical procedures and conditions. They can access that information through active digital media and passive digital media.

Active digital media allows the patients to use a touch-screen application. This digital media considers the patients’ learning level and pace to deliver information. The active digital media allows patients to acquire answers to common questions. It allows patients to discover what procedures will take place. It also allows patients to learn about the role of each healthcare worker and equipment.

Passive digital media shows general medical information. The information is typically displayed in waiting rooms and patient rooms.

11. Emergency Notifications

A digital signage can quickly disseminate information throughout the hospital during emergencies. For example, in the event of fire, instructions for fire evacuations are relayed to all of the people in the hospital.

12. Offers Patient Confidentiality

A password is required to access the patient’s medical information. Unauthorized users won’t be able to use any encryption technique to open the medical information.

Investigating a DUI Case

It is important to let you know firsthand that driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol is a criminal offense. A lot of people commit the mistake of thinking that a DUI case is simply a traffic ticket. But taking DUI cases lightly can be quite a big problem if not addressed immediately. It is for this reason that hiring an attorney that specializes on DUI cases becomes significant. Getting the services of a DUI attorney Salt Lake City has made available for people can be really helpful, but you also have to know the nature of your case so that you can defend your client if a license hearing should come to order.Here are some tips on investigating a DUI case.

attorneyDefending a DUI case in Salt Lake City, Utah might be different in other places. In proving that someone is either driving while drunk or not, there are a number of things to consider. Not all witnesses may be truthful and evidences might be saying something else other than the crime being focused on. What makes a DUI attorney Salt Lake City has different from others is the nature of DUI crimes in the vicinity. It is not entirely illegal in Salt Lake City to drive any vehicle after drinking alcohol. What is illegal is to drive while you are still intoxicated. This situation impairs your mental and physical ability to drive safely. You become a threat on the road for other cars and other people because you are not in the proper condition to control yourself and your vehicle.

When studying a DUI case, you cannot simply watch a man drive and decide that he is drunk while he is driving. Although he may have swerved lousily, for example, or lost track of his lane, it is not objective evidence that he is intoxicated. As a DUI attorney Salt Lake City recommends, you must determine the suspect’s blood alcohol content, also known as BAC, before you can conclude that the driver has committed something illegal.

The process of getting a person’s blood alcohol content also involves testing the person’s breath and urine. If the results testify that the person being convicted has amounts of alcohol in his system that goes beyond the permitted alcohol limit, the person can then be brought in for further investigations. Being a DUI attorney Salt Lake City takes pride in, you should be vigilant. Take note of all the other things that could be detrimental to proving whether the person is guilty of being a drunk driver or not.

In some cases, drivers get arrested because they are mistaken to be intoxicated. You should also avoid committing the mistake of believing and accepting police reports without reviewing them. Sometimes it is the police’s fault and not the driver’s. As an attorney, you should look at a DUI case from every angle possible to ensure an accurate and effective defense strategy. Check the blood alcohol, breath, and urine tester’s history of performance and maintenance. There are specific numbers that would make a person guilty of intoxication. If the devices used for testing this measurement is unreliable, then you might be putting someone into a sentence he doesn’t deserve. You should also visit the scene of arrest to check for evidences. Gather other helpful information from the scene that you can use to support your case.

Since there are now recordings of the happenings in the streets, it might also help your case to check these materials to strengthen your claims and arguments. Remember that as an attorney; you should not only be an aggressive defender, but a wise and critical thinker as well.

Mists that Blow the Heat Away

Finding a way to beat the summer heat? Does your electricity bill shoot upthe roof? There’s only one solution to your problem –a misting fan!Misting fans utilize evaporative cooling technology. This innovation is designed to provide luxurious cooling relief during hot weather without the luxurious price. Maybe you don’t notice them butmisters have actually started to become the new trend. You actually see them everywhere whether it is inside a restaurant, a private function, an outdoor party, or even inside offices.

The main reason why misting fans have become ubiquitous is due to its cost effectiveness. Simply put, you get more than what you paid for. Air conditioning units can be quite expensive. And it doesn’t end there. Air conditioning units actually consume a lot of electricity. Add maintenance and repair expenses to the list and you will be surprised just how much you are spending for your air conditioning unit every year. Just like your air conditioner, misting fans can also reduce the temperature of the surrounding although it does so at a lower price! Some of these units can cool an entire 600 square foot area at a price of just 20 cents per hour. Definitely far from the cost of traditional air conditioning units.

Another advantage is that it is less likely to require repair. One important factor in selecting an air conditioning unit is the horsepower. The capacity of which has to be enough to provide cooling effect to a limited area only. For instance, if you put a single 1.0- horsepower air conditioning unit in a room about 30 square meters in area, it wouldn’t be able to provide sufficient cooling effect. There is also a high tendency for the unit to malfunction due to prolonged straining. This is not the case with misting fans.

For instance, placing Auramist fans in an area larger than its capacity would not strain the machine. Although the large area would limit the cooling effect of Auramist fan, there are less chances for it to malfunction as compared to a standard air conditioning unit. For larger areas or venues, it would be most ideal to place an industrial type of misting fan. Placing multiple large industrial fans would be more cost effective as it is typically capable of cooling a 50,000 square foot area for just 80 cents an hour.

Auramist fans can be used for a variety of reasons. Whether it is for commercial, residential, or industrial, an appropriate model is available to suit your needs. For instance, there are weather resistant misting fans that are ideal for outdoor use. This is perfect for parties, sports activities, open air concerts, and other outdoor events. On the other hand, there are also self-contained units. These units are portable and very convenient to transfer. So the next time you go on a picnic, make sure to bring a self-contained misting fan to battle the heat!

If you have just purchased a regular fan, you don’t have to replace the whole unit with a misting fan. Another option would be to purchase a fan misting kit. This enables you to transform your regular fan to a misting fan. A misting kit works like an accessory; most of which are compatible with regular outdoor fans. You simply have to connect your fan to a water source via a hose and there you have your mist!

The best part about our misting fans is that you stay dry, and you will not get wet!

Golf Iron Sets: An In-Depth Look

Golf iron sets are probably the most used, if not the most important, part of a golfer’s club set. Woods generate most of your distance, while putters are reserved strictly for the putting green. Irons, on the other hand, are used in between the tee and the green. Irons will not be able to kick your ball off the tee, or get you that 15-foot birdie on the green. But if you pick the right one, it will surely set you up for an easy birdie, or a stellar chip-in.

In-depth on Irons and their Design

Golf iron sets make up the majority of any golfer’s bag, beginner or professional. They’re the rough equivalent of a repairman’s range of wrenches and screwdrivers. Like wrenches, they are labelled with numbers, though some are given letters. They’re called irons because when they first started out, they were literally made of iron, usually forged. Nowadays, most irons are produced through investment casting. This process lets manufacturers mass produce clubs with consistent properties.

There are two designs for irons: muscle back and cavity back. Both have their advantages and disadvantages, and are made differently.

Muscle back irons are the traditional design for iron clubs; hence they are made of forged iron, the traditional material for golf iron sets. Muscle-backs have a smaller “sweet spot”, or the best spot to hit the ball with, requiring more skill to handle. This means it will only do its job in the hands of a professional player, or a tournament-level amateur player. Since it’s forged, it allows for more customization, giving it an even bigger favour with better players.

Cavity back irons on the other hand are born out of the modern process of investment casting, allowing for more precise metal placement than forging. This means you have better weight distribution and easier production, perfect for mass-producing irons. This also means it’s easier for beginners to handle the iron, since it has a larger sweet spot compared to a muscle back iron.

Irons made for today’s game feature both designs, taking the best from how weight distribution can help beginners while still improving their game by not having that big of a sweet spot. Professionals and highly skilled amateurs still retain the small sweet spot for more control over their shot while still taking advantage of better weight distribution.

Types of Irons and How They are Used

When picking an iron from golf iron sets, it’s important to look at how each type of iron can give the golfer a different kind of shot. Know this by heart allows the golfer to look at how the shot can be best played without having to think about the club to use. There are 2 types of irons: numbered and wedge. Numbered irons are distributed into the following categories:

  • Long irons. Golf iron sets rarely have these now because of the appearance of hybrid heads, but before the rise of hybrids these were a golfer’s go-to iron for long distance shots from the fairway. They have a small “sweet spot”, making them very hard to hit with. They have a range of 180 – 260 yards.
  • Mid irons. These are probably the most utilized of the numbered irons, especially on par 4’s and par 5’s. With a range between 130 and 210 yards, they may not fly as far as hybrids or long irons do, but they certainly have more applications, like getting over hilly fairways or getting a chip in with more of a roll than the next kind of irons
  • Short irons. As the name implies, they are short-range irons (between 130 and 150 yards). They generate great high loft shots, and are great for escaping trees or doing approach shots from within 140 feet of the flag.

Wedges are the other type of iron you can see in a golf bag. These irons are used as utility irons, due to a higher loft than short irons. Wedges come in several variants, including:

  • The pitching wedge (PW). This is an all-around wedge used to send the ball into the green if you’re too close to do it with an 8 or a 9 iron.
  • The gap wedge (GW). With the de-lofting on pitching wedges, gap wedges (also known as approach, dual, utility, or attack wedges) are sometimes included to fill the gap and act as a secondary pitching wedge when the PW is deemed inappropriate.
  • The sand wedge (SW). This wedge, as the name implies, is best used for getting out of sand bunkers. It’s wide sole allows for the most “bounce” of any club head, which lets it glide through the sand.
  • The lob wedge (LW). It lets you “drop” a ball into a spot on the green that would otherwise be extremely difficult for any other wedge to get to.

Live Chat Service 103: The Life of the Specialist

These days, companies have learned their lessons and as such, instead of focusing only on their products, they now consider the most important part of the business: the customer. Companies these days apply methods of research wherein they get to know their customers more. By knowing their customers, companies are able to present the customers with products that will cater to their needs. One way to do this is by providing them with an outstanding support system that will immediately respond to their queries without the hassle of having to wait too long for a reply. As per standard, customer support can be done by the company in two ways: through written form or through live chat service. People who value fast response time use voice chat more often than writing down their concerns. As such, live chat representatives undergo training in order for them to be at their best especially when interacting with the customer. However, as human beings, they are still subject to certain pitfalls. For aspiring customer support specialists, certain qualities and practices should be cultivated and exercised in the workplace.

live chatFirst of all, in live chat service, the specialist should be knowledgeable about the business he will be working under. Being a member of the customer support team, he should be able to have a significant grasp of what the business is about. The specialist should learn what the business is, how it operates, and the core of the business itself in order to provide the best answers to the customer. Second, it is natural at times that customers can be demanding and it is up to the specialist to still maintain grace even under pressure. He must develop the virtue of patience. Being patient means that despite the pressure the customers are giving, he remains level-headed. If the customers are already nearing their limit due to the problem they have, instead of responding to pressure and disrespecting the customer in any way, the specialist should be able to keep his cool as he finds the possible solution to the customer’s question. Lastly, the specialist should always be professional. Being professional entails not lashing out at the customer. Customers are an essential part of the business; they are the business’ lifeline and without them, the business will not survive.

Live chat service establishes relationships not only between the entrepreneur and the customers. This service also establishes a relationship between the specialists and the customers themselves. The customer and the specialist’s frequent communication with one another can affect the business. The specialists also have a part in the business’ reputation. If the specialist is knowledgeable about the business, patient, and professional, the customer will be highly satisfied and will remain loyal to the business.

Video SEO Marketing Can Improve Your Chances of getting noticed and being remembered

seo3These days, business owners are always trying to find ways to create revenue. Having a business website is one way in an attempt to grab potential customers’ attention. You should use all the available tools and software programs and that include search engine optimization.

You may want to put some video onto your website. There are a number of reasons that business owners do this. It can be used to make visitors an insight of who you are and what products and services you are selling.

Every time you go online or watch television, you will see a variety of videos – some good or bad. You as a business owner should use video SEO marketing. There are some basics around this type of marketing that are easy to follow.

Most importantly, you want to entertain your viewers as well as inform them about your products and services. Some examples include showing how some of your products are used, demonstrating what types of services you provide and so much more.

However, there are some drawbacks involved in video SEO marketing. You want the video to look professional. This requires some money to buy video equipment. It is money well spent if you are able to attract new customers and makes some sales.

It does not take that long to shoot a business video. You just need the right people that are comfortable to stand in front of the camera. Then, a well-done script can be a good thing. You just need to have fun and make sure viewers see the real you.